Energy Theory

From PsychWiki - A Collaborative Psychology Wiki

Jump to: navigation, search

Living organisms can be viewed as systems of energy that are comprised of subsystems of energy (e.g., cells, organs). These systems perform work by obtaining energy and distributing energy to one another. For example, the brain performs work that enables thought and behavior, and it uses glucose and oxygen from the blood as energy to perform this work.

Energy Theory posits that mental and physical health require an optimal amount of energy for each system. For example, optimal thought and behavior requires that the brain has an optimal amount of glucose and oxygen. Mental and physical illness can arise when energy is low, such as when cells compete for (rather than share) finite energy needed to perform work. Examples include the following:

Contents

Impaired Self-Control

Self-control is the capacity for change enacted by the self. People commonly use self-control to diet, spend less money, be nice to others, and use less nicotine, alcohol, or drugs. Glucose is one energy on which self-control relies. When glucose is low, self-control is impaired ((Fairclough & Houston, 2004); Gailliot et al., 2007 [1]; Gailliot & Baumeister, 2007 [2]).

Premenstrual Symptoms

During the luteal phase phase of the menstrual cycle, women are more likely to display signs of impaired self-control, including increased aggression ((Bond, Critchlow, & Wingrove, 2003); (Van Goozen et al., 1996)), crime ((Brunetti & Taff, 1984); (D’Orban, 1983); (D’Orban & Dalton, 1980); (Ellis & Austin, 1971, as cited in Easteal, 1991); (Lombroso & Ferrero, 1894, as cited in Abplanalp, 1985)), and conflict with others ((Coughlin, 1990); Gallant, Popiel, Hoffman, Chakraborty, & Hamilton, 1992a; Gallant et al., 1992b; (Harrison, Endicott, Nee, Glick, & Rabkin, 1989); (Keye et al., 1986); (Pearlstein, Halbreich, et al., 2000); (Ryser, & Feinauer, 1992)), as well as increased intake of food ((Allen, Hatsukami, Christianson, & Brown, 2000); (Barr, Janelle, & Prior, 1995); (Buffenstein, Poppitt, McDevitt, & Prentice, 1995); (Cross, Marley, Miles, & Willson, 2001); (Evans, Haney, Levin, Foltin, & Fischman, 1996); (Johnson, Corrigan, Lemmon, Bergeron, & Crusco, 1994); (Lee & Lee, 1992); (Li, Tsang, & Lui, 1999); (Verri, 1997)), nicotine ((Allen, Hatsukami, Christianson, & Nelson, 1996); (Carpenter, Upadhyaya, LaRowe, Saladin, & Brady, 2006); (Craig, Parrott, & Coomber, 1992); (De Bon, Klesges, & Klesges, 1995); (Marks, Hair, Klock, Ginsburg, & Pomerleau, 1994); (Mello, Mendelson, & Palmieri, 1987); (Snively, Ahijevych, Bernhard, &Wewers, 2000); (Steinberg & Cherek, 1989)), drugs ((Marks, Hair, Klock, Ginsburg, & Pomerleau, 1994)), alcohol ((Chait, 1986); (Deuster, Adera, & South-Paul, 1999); (Epstein et al., 2006); (Evans, Haney, Levin, Foltin, & Fischman, 1996); (Mello, Mendelson, & Lex, 1990); (Tobin, Schmidt, & Rubinow, 1994)), and caffeine ((Rossignol, 1985)). During the luteal phase, the ovaries [3] require increased energy to produce estrogen [4]and progesterone [5]((Dalton, 1999); (Landgren, Unden, & Diczfalusy, 1980); (Mayo, 1997); (Webb, 1986)). It is possible that self-control is impaired during the luteal phase because energy is diverted to the ovaries and away from other cells (e.g., neurons [6]).

  1. During the luteal phase, glycogen in the vaginal epithelium decreases (p. 1875, Gray's Anatomy). This supports the idea that metabolic demands increase during the luteal phase.

Diabetes

People with diabetes [7] are more likely to experience stress and anxiety than people without diabetes ((Eren, Erdi, & Özcankaya, 2003); (Fris & Nanjundappa, 1986); (Lustman, Griffith, Clouse, & Cryer, 1986); (Popkin, Callies, Lentz, & Colon, 1988); (Wells, Golding, & Burnam, 1989)). Stress and anxiety increase the use of glucose [8] by the brain ((Barglow, Hatcher, Edidin, & Sloan-Rossiter, 1984); (Kety, 1950)). It is possible that this increase diverts energy to the brain and away from other cells (e.g., primarily fat and muscle cells), keeping energy (glucose) in the bloodstream. In support of this theory is evidence linking diabetes to increases in Glut-1 [9](which facilitates glucose entering the brain; (Jansson, Wennergren, & Powell, 1999); (Kumagai, Kang, Boado, & Pardridge, 1995)) and decreases in Glut-4 [10](which facilitates glucose entering fat and muscle cells; (Stenbit et al., 1997)) and Glut-2 (which facilitates glucose entering pancreas and liver cells; (Guillam et al., 1997); (Valera et al., 1994)), suggesting that transporter activity [11] may be altered so as to facilitate the flow of metabolic energy to the brain.

Psychological Demands & Physical Illness and Disease

Excessive psychological demands are associated with increases in physical illness. Excessive psychological demands entail increased glucose [12] use by the brain ((Barglow, Hatcher, Edidin, & Sloan-Rossiter, 1984); (Kety, 1950)). It is possible that the increased use of glucose by the brain diverts energy from processes that reduce physical illness.

  1. Excessive psychological demands are associated with increases in physical illness. Excessive psychological demands entail increased glucose use by the brain ((Barglow, Hatcher, Edidin, & Sloan-Rossiter, 1984)). Psychological demands, therefore, might increase physical illness because the brain uses metabolic energy (glucose) that would otherwise be used by the immune system [13] to reduce physical illness.


Cancer

Glucose [14] use can be increased among people with (vs. without) cancer [15], possibly because tumors consume additional glucose ((Weber et al., 2003); (Younes, Lechago, Somoano, Mosharaf, & Lechago, 1996)). Some evidence indicates that frontal lobe executive functioning and memory are impaired among people with cancer (even before cancer treatment), compared to those without cancer ((Cleeland et al., 2003); (Meyers, Albitar, & Estey, 2005); (Meyers, Byrne, & Komaki, 1995)). It is possible that cancer cells divert energy from processes benefiting executive functioning and memory.

References

Abplanalp, J. (1985). Premenstrual syndrome. Behavioural Sciences and the Law, 3(1), 103-15.

Allen, S. S., Hatsukami, D. K., Christianson, D., & Brown, S. (2000). Energy intake and energy expenditure during the menstrual cycle in short-term smoking cessation. Addictive Behaviors, 25(4), 559–572.

Allen, S., Hatsukami, D., Christianson, D., & Nelson, D. (1996). Symptomatology and energy intake during the menstrual cycle in smoking women. Journal of Substance Abuse, 8, 303–319.

Barglow, P., Hatcher, R., Edidin, D.V., & Sloan-Rossiter, D. (1984). Stress and metabolic control in diabetes: Psychosomatic evidence and evaluation of methods. Psychosomatic Medicine, 46, 127-144.

Barr, S. I., Janelle K. C., Prior J. C. (1995). Energy intakes are higher during the luteal phase of ovulatory menstrual cycles. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 61, 39-43.

Bond, A. J., Critchlow, D., & Wingrove, J. (2003). Conflict resolution in women is related to trait aggression and menstrual cycle phase. Aggressive behavior, 29, 228-233.

Brunetti, L., & Taff, M. (1984). The premenstrual syndrome. The American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology, 5, 265-8.

Buffenstein, R., Poppitt, S. S., McDevitt, R. M., Prentice, A. M. (1995). Food intake and the menstrual cycle: A retrospective analysis, with implications for appetite research. Physiology & Behavior, 58, 1067-1077.

Carpenter, M.J., Upadhyaya, H.P., LaRowe, S.D., Saladin, M.E., & Brady, K.T. (2006). Menstrual cycle phase effects on nicotine withdrawal and cigarette craving: A review. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 8, 627-638.

Chait, L. (1986). Premenstrual Syndrome and Our Sisters in Crime: A Feminist Dilemma. Women's Rights Law Reporter, 9, 267-293.

Cleeland, C.S., Bennett, G.J., Dantzer, R., Dougherty, P.M., Dunn, A.J., et al. (2003). Are the symptoms of cancer and cancer treatment due to a shared biologic mechanism? A cytokine-immunologic model of cancer symptoms. Cancer, 97(11), 2919-2925.

Coughlin, P. C. (1990). Premenstrual syndrome: How marital satisfaction and role choice affect symptom severity. Social Work, 35(4), 351-354.

Craig, D., Parrott, A., & Coomber, J. (1992). Smoking cessation in women: Effects of the menstrual cycle. The International Journal of the Addictions, 27, 697–706.

Cross, G.B., Marley, J., Miles, H., & Willson, K. (2001). Changes in nutrient intake during the menstrual cycle of overweight women with premenstrual syndrome. British Journal of Nutrition, 85, 475-482.

D’Orban, P.T., & Dalton, J. (1980). Violent crime and the menstrual cycle. Psychological Medicine, 10, 353-359.

D'Orban, P. T. (1983). Medicolegal aspects of the premenstrual syndrome. British Journal of Hospital Medicine, 30, 404-9.

Dalton, K. (1999) The PMS Bible. Vermilion, London.

De Bon, M., Klesges, R., & Klesges, L. (1995). Symptomatology across the menstrual cycle in smoking and nonsmoking women. Addictive Behaviors, 20, 335–343.

Deuster, P.A., Adera, T., & South-Paul, J. (1999). Biological, social, and behavioral factors associated with premenstrual syndrome. Archives of Family Medicine, 8, 122-128.

Easteal, P. W. (1991). Women and crime: Premenstrual issues. Trends & Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice, 31. Australian Institute of Criminology, Canberra.

Epstein, E.E., Rhines, K.C., Cook, S., Zdep-Mattocks, B., Jensen, N.K., & McCrady, B.S. (2006). Changes in alcohol craving and consumption by phase of menstrual cycle in alcohol dependent women. Journal of Substance Use, 11, 323-332.

Eren, I., Erdi, Ö., & Özcankaya, R. (2003). Relationship between blood glucose control and psychiatric disorders in type II diabetic patients. Turkish Journal of Psychiatry, 14, 184-191.

Evans, S., Haney, M., Levin, F., Foltin, R., & Fischman, M. (1996). Menstrual Cycle Effects in Women with Premenstrual Syndrome. European Neuropsychopharmacology, 6, 57.

Fairclough, S.H., & Houston, K. (2004). A metabolic measure of mental effort. Biological Psychology, 66, 177-190.

Fris, R, & Nanjundappa, G. (1986). Diabetes, depression, and employment status. Social Science and Medicine, 23, 471-475.

Gailliot, M.T., & Baumeister, R.F. (2007). The physiology of willpower: Linking blood glucose to self-control. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 11, 303-327.

Gailliot, M.T., Baumeister, R.F., DeWall, C.N., Maner, J.K., Plant, E.A., Tice, D.M., Brewer, L.E., & Schmeichel, B.J. (2007). Self-Control relies on glucose as a limited energy source: Willpower is more than a metaphor. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92, 325-336.

Gallant, S. J., Popiel, D. A., Hoffman, D. M., Chakraborty, P. K., & Hamilton, J. A. (1992a). Using daily ratings to confirm premenstrual syndrome/late luteal phase dysphoric disorder. Part I. Effects of demand characteristics and expectations. Psychosomatic Medicine, 54, 149-166.

Gallant, S. J., Popiel, D. A., Hoffman, D. M., Chakraborty, P. K., & Hamilton, J. A. (1992b). Using daily ratings to confirm premenstrual syndrome/late luteal phase dysphoric disorder II: What makes a “real” difference? Psychosomatic Medicine, 54, 167–181.

Guillam, M.T., Hummler, E., Schaerer, E., Wu, J-Y., Birnbaum, M.J., Beermann, F., Schmidt, A., Deriaz, N., & Thorens, B. (1997). Early diabetes and abnormal postnatal pancreatic islet development in mice lacking Glut-2. Nature Genetics, 17, 327-330.

Harrison, W. M., Endicott, J., Nee, J., Glick, H., & Rabkin, J. G. (1989). Characteristics of women seeking treatment for premenstrual syndrome. Psychosomatics, 30, 405-411.

Jansson, T., Wennergren, M., & Powell, T.L. (1999). Placental glucose transport and GLUT 1 expression in insulin-dependent diabetes. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, 180, 163-168.

Johnson, W.G., Corrigan, S.A., Lemmon, C.R., Bergeron, K.B., & Crusco, A.H. (1994). Energy regulation over the menstrual cycle. Physiology and Behavior, 56, 523-527.

Kety, S.S. (1950). Circulation and metabolism of the human brain in health and disease. American Journal of Medicine, 8, 205-217.

Keye, W. R., & Trunnell, E. (1986). Premenstrual syndrome: A medical perspective. Hamline Law Review, 9(1), 165-182.

Kumagai, A.K., Kang, Y.S., Boado, R.J., & Pardridge, W.M. (1995). Upregulation of blood-brain barrier GLUT1 glucose transporter protein and mRNA in experimental chronic hypoglycemia. Diabetes, 44, 1399-1404.

Lee, M.C., & Lee, S.H. (1992). Premenstrual tension syndrome with periodic bulimia nervosa: report of a case and review of the literature. Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, 91, 716-720.

Li, E.T., Tsang, L.B.Y., & Lui, S.S.H. (1999). Menstrual cycle and voluntary food intake in young Chinese women. Appetite, 33, 109-118.

Lustman, P.J., Griffith, L.S., Clouse, R.E., & Cryer, P.E. (1986). Psychiatric illness in diabetes mellitus: Relationship to symptoms and glucose control. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 174, 736-742.

Marks, J.L., Hair, C.S., Klock, S.C., Ginsburg, B.E., & Pomerleau, C.S. (1994). Effects of menstrual phase on intake of nicotine, caffeine, and alcohol and nonprescribed drugs in women with late luteal phase dysphoric disorder. Journal of Substance Abuse, 6, 235-243.

Mayo, J.L. (1997). Premenstrual Syndrome: A natural approach to management. Applied Nutritional Science Reports, 5, 1-8.

Mello, N., Mendelson, J., & Palmieri, S. (1987). Cigarette smoking by women: Interactions with alcohol use. Psychopharmacology, 93, 8–15.

Mello, N.K., Mendelson, J.H., & Lex, B.W. (1990). Alcohol use and premenstrual symptoms in social drinkers. Psychopharmacology, 101, 448-455.

Meyers, C.A., Albitar, M., & Estey, E. (2005). Cognitive impairment, fatigue, and cytokine levels in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome. Cancer, 104(4), 788-793.

Meyers, C.A., Byrne, K.S., Komaski, R. (1995). Cognitive deficits in patients with small cell lung cancer before and after chemotherapy. Lung Cancer, 12(3), 231-235.

Pearlstein, T. B., Halbreich, U., Batzar, E. D., Brown, C. S., Endicott, J., Frank, E., et al. (2000). Performance in a test demanding prefrontal functions is favored by early luteal phase progesterone: an electroencephalographic study. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 61, 101-109.

Popkin, M.K., Callies, A.L., Lentz, R.D., Colon, E.A., & Sutherland, D.E. (1988). Prevalence of major depression, simple phobia, and other psychiatric disorders in patients with long standing type I diabetes mellitus. Archives of General Psychiatry, 5, 64-68.

Rossignol, A.M. (1985). Caffeine-containing beverages and premenstrual syndrome in young women. American Journal of Public Health, 75, 1335-1337.

Ryser, R., & Feinauer, L. L. (1992). Premenstrual syndrome and the marital relationship. The American Journal of Family Therapy, 20, 179-190.

Snively, T., Ahijevych, K., Bernhard, L., & Wewers, M. (2000). Smoking behavior, dysphoric states and the menstrual cycle: Results from the single smoking sessions and the natural environment. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 25, 677–691.

Steinberg, J., & Cherek, D. (1989). Menstrual cycle and cigarette smoking behavior. Addictive Behaviors, 14, 173–179.

Stenbit, A.E., Tsao, T-S., Li, J., Burcelin, R., Geenen, D.L., Factor, S.M., Houseknecht, K., Katz, E.B., & Charron, M.J. (1997). GLUT4 heterozygous knockout mice develop muscle insulin resistance and diabetes. Nature Medicine, 3, 1096-1101.

Tobin, M.B., Schmidt, P.J., & Rubinow, D.R. (1994). Reported alcohol use in women with premenstrual syndrome. American Journal of Psychiatry, 151, 1503-1504.

Valera, A., Solanes, G., Fernandez-Alvarez, J., Pujol, A., Ferrer, J., Asins, G., Gomis, R., & Bosch, F. (1994). Expression of GLUT-2 antisense RNA in beta cells of transgenic mice leads to diabetes. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 46, 28543-28546.

Van Goozen, S. H. M., Frijda, N. H., Wiegant, V. M., Endert, E., & Van de Poll, N. E. (1996). The premenstrual phase and reactions to adverse events: A study of hormonal influences on emotionality. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 21, 479-497.

Verri, A, Nappi, R.E., Vallero, E., Galli, C., Sances, G., & Martignoni, E. (1997). Premenstrual dysphoric disorder and eating disorders. Cephalalgia, 17, 25-28.

Webb, P. (1986). 24-hour energy expenditure and the menstrual cycle. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 44, 614-619.

Weber, W.A., Petersen, V., Schmidt, B., Tyndale-Hines, L., Link, T., Peschel, C., & Schwaiger, M. (2003). Positron emission tomography in non–small-cell lung cancer: Prediction of response to chemotherapy by quantitative assessment of glucose use. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 21(14), 2651-2657.

Wells, K.B., Golding, J.M., & Burnam, M.A. (1989). Affective substance use, and anxiety disorders in persons with arthritis, diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure, or chronic lung conditions. General Hospital Psychiatry, 11, 320-327.

Younes, M., Lechago, L.V., Somoano, J.R., Mosharaf, M., & Lechago, J. (1996). Wide expression of the human erythrocyte glucose transporter Glut1 in human cancers. Cancer Research, 56, 1164-1167.


Barglow, P., Hatcher, R., Edidin, D.V., & Sloan-Rossiter, D.(1984)]]. Stress and metabolic control in diabetes: Psychosomatic evidence and evaluation of methods. Psychosomatic Medicine, 46, 127-144.

Support or Contradict = support

Why = Excessive psychological demands are associated with increases in physical illness. Excessive psychological demands entail increased glucose use by the brain


Personal tools
Namespaces
Variants
Actions
Navigation
Interaction
Toolbox