Markus, H. R., & Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation. Psychological review, 98(2), 224-253.

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The article discusses divergent aspects of the self by arguing that Western and Eastern cultures hold divergent construals of the self, of others, and of the relationship between the two (the self and others). The article compares an independent view of the self with an interdependent view of the self. The authors argue that individuals from Western cultures seek to atten to the self, assert the self, and appreciate of one's different from others, whereas individuals from Eastern cultures value attending to and fitting in with others and emphasize the importance of harmonious interdependence with others. The article describles some of the cognitive, emotional, and motivational consequences of holding a view of the self that includes others and requires others to define the self. Understanding the distinction between independent versus interdependent selves provide a means of assimilating separate personality constructs. This article contributes to the literature by posing questions about the universality (or perhaps the monocultural approach to the self) assumed for many aspects of cognition, emotion, and motivation. Previous research mainly focused on Western view of the self, which failed to consider interdependent construal of the self.

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